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Introduction

The Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR), Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) and Radio Frequencies (RF) data available from multiple sources was thoroughly analyzed while developing and before testing the first commercially available AegisGuard™ products, AegisGuard™ Phone Radiation Shields in 1998 (superseded by AegisGuard™ LS Radiation Shields in 2005).

It has always been known radiation emitted by wireless products penetrate the body of the user when the products are in use. In recent years, it has also been confirmed that radiation penetration occurs when using wired products, and concerns expressed about the health effects at very low wireless product frequencies have been confirmed. The effects of the radiation and standards used to measure its effects upon the human body are still being debated by scientists, engineers and those in the medical profession.

It became evident early in the product development phase that the SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) test procedures developed by the United States Air Force, and used by regulatory agencies worldwide to determine the safety criteria for wireless product and network safety, is an inadequate standard for determining wireless heath risks (see SAR Overview for additional information).

  • SAR standards were not designed to measure cumulative effects upon the body, and there has never been a study stating without caveats wireless products meeting these standards are safe.
  • Actual frequencies, along with the fields they carry are not measured. Existing SAR standards were created by the United States Air Force after placing a healthy 28 year old male in a sunny, hot, humid environment for 61 minutes, measuring his temperature rectally, and calculating estimated safe thermal thresholds for individual body organs. Decibel (dB) measurements are used for testing every other aspect of wireless communications and products, including older AegisGuard™ products. Newer technologies, and despite numerous studies confirming that wireless radiation far below the thermal level is harmful to human health, the SAR standard, and shielding effectiveness expressed in dB, continues to be used by carriers, regulatory agencies and shielding product manufacturers. It is important to recognize none of the health effects attributed to non-ionizing radiation are thermally induced. 
  • SAR standards are theoretical human body radiation absorption rate simulations calculated for non-ionizing temperatures (thermal), rather than actual near field radiation frequencies, which for most shielding products is measured in decibels (dB) using planar (flat surface) immovable fixed surfaces. dB is the global standard unit of measurement used to determine the absolute ratio, or comparison, of voltage, power, gain, loss, and frequency signal levels. It is not for measuring frequencies, nor can it be used for non-rigid surfaces, such as clothing..
  • For wireless phones, SAR tests measure thermal emissions when placed against the ear of a plastic model head for a brief amount of time; typically less than 9 minutes. The outside of the model's ear has a rubber disc so that a phone can be positioned against it and the thickness of the disc varies, which affects the test results. Almost all of a wireless phone's radiation is generated by the radio system (transmitter and receiver), which in newer phone models is located away from the earpiece near the display or keypad. This affects SAR test results, particularly for full flip-style phones where the entire radio system is located in the lower half of the phone.

Rather than presenting calculated, estimated or simulated results and comparing them against globally disputed SAR thermal specifications, all AegisGuard™ Radiation Shield tests were conducted by three independent laboratories measuring RF before, and after, using AegisGuard™ Radiation Shields in multiple real-world environments. Test results were presented in decibels (dB) for older AegisGuard™ models, and actual frequency ranges with the fields they carry for newer models, including all AegisGuard L™ Series (LL, LP and LS) products.

In 1998, globally accepted test procedures developed by the American Society of Test and Measurement (ASTM D4935-99) were used, and custom shields were also made for radio modems to test the shielding effectiveness frequencies up to 2.6 GHz, which was higher than any wireless phone available at the time. The same procedures were used to test AegisGuard™ Wired Headset, (Life) Series and XP Radiation Shields at frequencies up to 2.6 GHz.

On June 25, 1956, the United States Department of Defense (DoD) approved the use of planar attenuation testing measurement standards and procedures designated as MIL-STD-285 for the electromagnetic shielding of building entrances, doors and large electronic equipment access panels. DoD formally discontinued using this standard on October 24, 1997 after the responsibility for developing and maintaining a new standard was given to the IEEE. It still used by a few testing laboratories.

During the design phase of AegisGuard™ Life Series and XP Radiation Shields, it was understood that ASTM D4935-99 procedures could not be used for testing shielding effectiveness above 2.6 GHz. because they were not designed to do so. MIL-STD-285 was procedure that might have been used, but it was obsolete.

Although the frequency range of the new standard, designated IEEE-STD-299, is suitable for testing AegisGuard™ L Series and XP Radiation Shields, it too is for planar applications and not designed for testing products where the minimum dimension of any side of an enclosure is less than 2 meters (78 inches). Similar planar standards for secure, immovable flat surface testing are available, such as discontinued MIL-STD (USA) and 285 GJB 5792-2006 (China), do not measure frequencies or support 5G 300 and or 600 GHz. technologies applications and were not used.

Initial procedures for higher frequencies were developed in-house to measure the shielding effectiveness of AegisGuard™ Life Series and XP Radiation Shields with the same type of test equipment used by electronic product manufacturers, including wireless phones manufacturers and carriers, and the same procedures were used to test AegisGuard™ L Series Radiation Shields. Initial test results using these procedures were also presented in dB, and upgraded in-house to RF to comply with our customers and testing laboratory objectives.

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